After this massacre all the factions of the left; Anarchists, Communists and Socialists who all previously had major disagreements decided to unite into one Republican force, �the Popular Front.�
At the 1936 elections the Popular Front stood and defeated the Right-Wing coalition, and established a Republican government. The extreme right especially those in the army, including General Emilio Mola, only had one response to this, war. Headed by Franco they were not willing to accept a left-wing government and with the help of Hitler and Mussolini went on the attack to take over the government. To help the Nationalists African Mercenaries were brought in to fight for Franco.
The Republican forces which included many left factions as well as Catalonians and Basques stood little chance against the organised army of the right-wing Nationalists. With tension already high in Europe there was little aid from abroad for the Republicans from Britain, USA and France despite the Nationalists receiving significant help (in the form of weapons and military advise) from Hitler and Mussolini.
There was a great deal of conflict within the Republican army particularly between the Anarchists and the Communists that hindered the war effort. On the Nationalist side internal conflict also existed, especially between the military and the fascists, but Franco was able to surmount it and consolidate his position.